You can get a skin infection anytime your skin is broken, whether from a cut, tattoo, piercing, puncture, sting, or bite.
It can happen when germs get into your body through the wound and there are more of them than your immune system can handle.
Sometimes an infection happens at the skin’s surface, but they can start deeper in the wound. You can treat minor skin infections at home, but you might have to go to the doctor or emergency room for a more serious one.
If you think your skin may be infected, watch for these signs:
- Pus or fluid leaks out of the cut
- Red skin around the injury
- A red streak that runs from the cut toward your heart
- A pimple or yellowish crust on top
- Sores that look like blisters
- Pain that gets worse after a few days
- Swelling that gets worse after a few days
- A fever
- The wound hasn’t healed after 10 days
It can be hard to tell the difference between an infection and eczema, especially in children. People with eczema often get skin infections because the breaks in their skin let germs in. If an eczema treatment doesn’t work, or if the rash gets worse, it could be an infection.
What to Do
Call a doctor or go to the hospital right away if you think you might have a skin infection and:
- You have a fever of 100.4 degrees or higher.
- You’re in a lot of pain.
- The redness or swelling spreads.
Keep in mind that pink or red skin and swelling around the wound are normal, especially if you have stitches. Some amount of pain is normal, too, but it should start to let up after the second day.
If you see pus, fluid, or crust, call your doctor within 24 hours. Call if the pain gets worse after 48 hours.
Bacteria, a fungus, or a virus can cause skin infections. Common types include:
Boils. This is the most common type of skin infection. It’s usually caused by staph bacteria. It’s a pocket of pus that forms over a hair follicle or oil gland. Your skin gets red and swollen. If it breaks open, pus likely will drain out.
Impetigo. This contagious rash usually shows up as blisters with a honey-colored crust. Staph or strep bacteria are usually to blame.
Cellulitis. This bacterial infection grows in the deepest layers of your skin. It causes redness, swelling, and sores on the surface.
Ringworm. No, it has nothing to do with worms. Its name comes from the circular shape of the rash it causes. The spots also have a border that’s slightly raised and darker in color. This fungal infection can appear anywhere on your body. Athlete’s foot and jock itch are types of ringworm.
MRSA. This bacterial infection can be dangerous because it resists some antibiotics. The rash usually shows up as painful red bumps that look like pimples or spider bites. It may be warm to the touch, and you might have a fever.
This skin infection often shows up in schools, military barracks, nursing homes, and other places where people live in close quarters.
If you have an infection, your doctor may prescribe medicine. What he gives you depends on the type of infection:
- Antibiotics fight a bacterial infection.
- Antivirals treat viral infections.
- Antifungal creams, ointments, or powders treat fungal infections.
Any break in the skin can lead to a tetanus infection if your tetanus shot isn’t up to date. Check with your doctor to see if you need a booster one.
Proper hand-washing is important. Use soap and warm water to scrub your hands for 20 seconds, then rinse and dry with a clean towel or paper towel. Use hand sanitizer if soap and water aren't nearby.
If you’re an athlete or a gym rat, use a clean towel as a barrier between your skin and shared surfaces like exercise machines or locker room benches. If the gym has sanitizer or cleaner and paper towels to clean gym equipment before and after you’re on it, use them. Shower and wash your clothes and towel after every workout.
If you have a minor cut or break in your skin, keep it clean. Wash it with warm water and soap. You also can use an antibiotic ointment like bacitracin or neomycin, and cover it with a clean bandage.
If you have a major skin wound, especially one with stitches, check with your doctor for proper care instructions.